Special Forces are a branch of the Armed Forces intended to carry out operations in conditions and situations when the use of conventional forces is not possible or is not desired for political, military, operational or technical reasons. Special Forces carry out their tasks using specialists, equipment, combat techniques and operating procedures not being in standard use in other branches of the Armed Forces. Special Forces are independent units made up of soldiers chosen after a multi-level selection process, trained in the use of non-conventional combat techniques, equipped and prepared to operate in small groups in high-risk environments in all terrains and climates. Due to the tasks that they carry out, only people with exceptional indomitability, fortitude and above-average physical and psychological resilience can become Special Forces soldiers.
Special Forces Command (Dowództwo Wojsk Specjalnych) headquartered in Cracow was established in January 2007. Directly subordinate to the chief of the General Staff is composed of special unit “GROM”, the 1st Special Regiment from Lubliniec and Naval Group “Formoza”.
1ST SPECIAL REGIMENT FROM LUBLINIEC
1st Special Regiment from Lubliniec refers with its traditions to the history of the 2nd Commando Battalion of the Special Motorized Battalion, "Parasol" and "Zoska" Sabotage Battalions. The unit is characterized by very high training levels owing to the special training system that has been introduced in Polish units for several years. Typical activities trained in the 1st Commando Regiment soldiers are: group landing from a helicopter, reconnaissance activities, ambushes, attack and retreat, camouflage, frogmen attack and parachuting, unarmed and armed combat, 40-kilometer marches in full gear. The unit aims to become fully professional. Soldiers of the 1st Regiment are also trained in activities behind the front line, espionage data collection, reconnaissance, defensive raids and hostage rescue.
Candidates first go through basic training and then a 3-month school for young specialists. Later 6-person special groups are created.
A special unit known as the Operational-Manoeuver Response Group was founded on July 13, 1990, organized according to the best American and British models. In 1994 it participated in the mission of the allied forces on Haiti as well as in search of the war criminals on the territory of former Yugoslavia.
GROM is a formation that depending on needs can perform typical reconnaissance and sabotage tasks. Its members also have skills useful in complex rescue operations aimed at rescuing hostages from terrorists. They are also prepared for marine operations (on vessels and drilling rigs). These operations are considered to be the most difficult.
They operate in four-person teams. Each soldier is a professional in the field of special operations. They undergo arduous training in parachuting and diving.
Candidates applying to serve in the GROM have to pass psychological and endurance tests and the so called truth test, i.e. exhausting physically and psychologically field test during which the weakest fail. GROM soldiers train together with the best special units in the world. By the specialists they are classified on the par with the American Delta Force or British SAS.
MARINE SPECIAL OPERATIONS UNIT – “FORMOZA”
Sea special operations section – “Formoza” was founded in 1974 as the navy divers’ research group established to draw up a concept for the organisation and formation of a special division of naval frogmen. Its first commander was a retired certified commander, Józef Rembisz. The tasks and name of the group have changed several times. Initially, it operated as an independent unit, to be subordinated after fifteen years to the commander of the Group of Reconnaissance Ships constituting a part of the 3rd Flotilla of Ships in Gdynia. In January 2008 the group came under subordination of Special Forces Command.
“Formoza” is designed to run special operations in times of peace, crisis and war. Its basic tasks include carrying out operations at sea, under water and in on-shore facilities.
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